分享几个中西方的雅思口语思维差异点
Spring Rain 2018-08-03     12:26 来源: 来自互联网
评论 0
点赞0
阅读 39
雅思

分享几个中西方的雅思口语思维差异点

在英语口语考试中,是一个需要处处小心的考项。因为由于中西方思维方式的差异,很可能会出现中式英语的现象。尤其是在雅思这种比较重要的考试中,随口一句Chinglish就有可能让你过去几个月的备考成效化为虚无。下面是三立在线老师介绍的几个中西方的思维差异点,希望对考生有所帮助。
一、伦理型思维与认知型思维中国传统思维方式的另一个特点,可以称为伦理型。而西方人更偏向于认知型思维。让我们来看一道2014年雅思口语Part 2新话题Describe a subject that you want to give information to others,描述一个你想告诉别人信息的科目。

Describe a subject that you want to give information to others.
You should say:
what the subject is
when people ask you information about the subject
what you would say
and explain how you feel after people ask you information about the subject.

在众多科目中,有一个科目很明显地体现了中国伦理型思维与西方认知型思维的差异,那就是天文学。这个科目在中国并不十分流行,但在西方却是一个很热门的科目,不少高中把它设为必修,也有不少大学生把它作为专业在大学里研究,这充分体现了西方人注重科学的态度。

Ronen Plesser是杜克大学物理和数学系的副教授。他于1991年在哈佛大学获得物理学博士学位,曾在在耶鲁大学、高等研究学院以及以色列魏兹曼科学院任职,直到1997年他加入杜克大学。他的研究领域主要在于弦理论和粒子物理学背景下几何学与物理学的相互作用。2002年至今,他都在杜克大学教授天文学的入门课程。让我们来看看他是如何向大学提供自己所教授的这门学科的信息吧:

“Hi, my name’s Roen Plesser, I’m from Duke University. And I want to talk to you about an astronomy course that I’ll be teaching online soon. I’ve been teaching a class similar to this at Duke for 10 years, and I’m excited about the opportunity to offer it to many more students through this online video. I like teaching astronomy despite the fact that I’m not professionally an astronomer, because astronomy give us an opportunity at the same time to discuss aspects of the university that we see every day—what stars are visible in the evening sky, why there are rainbows when it rains and why the moon changes shape in the sky. At the same time, it gives an opportunity to talk about aspects of physics that are not immediately obvious to us every day. Quantum mechanics, Einstein’s theory of relativity will all make an appearance and will be applied to understand the things that we have to talk about. So in teaching this class, we get to take a romp through physics, starting with things we see around us every day and culminating in things that we don’t understand yet. The beautiful thing, the glorious thing about astronomy is that the laws of physics that governs what happens in stars that might be a billion galaxies far away and long time ago are exactly the same laws that apply to our life here on earth. So understanding one, we understand the other. These laws are mathematical and they’re precise. And the understanding to which I refer is a very technical term. I say I understand something when I can make a calculation based on some principles. I can make a measurement and the two numbers the one I computed and the one I measured actually agree. This is the kind of understanding that we are going to try to achieve for as much of the universe as we can. Achieving this kind understanding is not an easy task. It’ll take some work, but it’s, I find, one of the most gratifying things that we can do. So if you have some time and some energy and you want to invest in having a completely mind-blowing new way to look at the universe around you, you’re invited to join us for this adventure. And I hope to see you in a few months.”

这道口语话题并没有硬性规定考生描述的科目,但仍建议考生可以从西方人认知型的思维角度出发,投其所好,多描述一些与科学有关的学科,以拉近与考官的距离,同时也更易于考官理解考生表述的内容。

二、归纳型思维与演绎型思维厦门大学连淑能教授曾经说过:“中国人善于将一本书归纳成一句话,西方人善于将一句话演绎成一本书”。这话可谓一语中的。中国人最擅长“圣言式”、“语录式”、“格言体”的归纳,最典型的例子便是中医将其庞大的理论归纳为“望闻问切”。同样的归纳还体现在北魏贾思勰的农业名著《齐民要术》、北宋沈括的科技名著《梦溪笔谈》、明朝李时珍的药学名著《本草纲目》以及明朝宋应星的农业、手工业技术名著《天工开物》等等。而西方的思维方式倾向于演绎。古希腊哲学家亚里士多德便十分强调演绎法,其后的笛卡儿、莱布尼兹为代表的理性主义派也非常重视演绎法。

让我们通过一道2014年雅思口语Part 2话题,来进一步分析一下中国归纳型思维和西方演绎型思维的差异。

Describe an event that changed your life in a good/positive way.
You should say:
when it happened
where it happened
what the change was
and explain how you have benefited from this change.

一说到改变自己的事情,中国考生大多想到一些非常重大的事件,如出国留学、进入了理想的大学、克服困难取得了成功等等。从这些大方面入手,进而谈到这些事对自己各方面的改变,这就是归纳型的思维方式。而西方人在谈论改变自己的事件时,则很可能会谈论很小的一件事,即生命中很渺小的一个点,进而扩大到对自己整体的改变,这就是演绎型思维。一个很好的例子,便是史蒂夫•乔布斯2005年在斯坦福大学毕业典礼上的演讲,其中他谈到了改变自己的一件事,那就是学习书法。

“Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn''t have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can''t capture, and I found it fascinating.

None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, it’s likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.

Again, you can''t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something - your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.”

通过这段演讲我们可以看到,乔布斯把学习书法这件事看成生命中重要的一个点,并在日后把这个点和不同的点结合在一起,形成一个面,一个属于他自己的科技网络。这种由点及面的叙事方式,值得各位考生学习并模仿。

以上就是三立在线老师介绍的几个中西方的雅思口语思维差异点,希望对考生有所帮助。

三立在线针对2018年的雅思考试,开设“雅思基础课程、强化课程、冲刺课程”。想快速提分的同学可以在线咨询客服,了解课程详情,预约名师1V1试听课;为你量身打造专属雅思学习方案;免费领取雅思考试学习资料/备考干货/视频课件/直播公开课/原版英文杂志!

分享几个中西方的雅思口语思维差异点

雅思写作步步为营

评论(0)

×
咨询热线
雅思考试贴士 10月有 0 场雅思考试
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
考试小帮手
雅思名师直通车
  • 孙中秋 国内最早一批SAT名师
    8年+教学经验
    中国地质大学硕士
    预约名师
    黄茜子 托福、AP、IB高分名师
    2年+教学经验
    加拿大渥太华大学硕士
    预约名师
    陈丽 托福、GRE高分名师
    5年+教学经验
    美研精英计划规划师
    预约名师
    沈虹余 ACT、SAT2名师
    3年+教学经验
    美国凯斯西储大学硕士
    预约名师
    丁维 托福高分名师
    5年+教学经验
    上海对外贸易大学硕士
    预约名师
  • 李现伟 三立在线创始人 CEO
    10年+教学经验
    国内权威全科教学专家
    预约名师
    关梦瑶 SAT、AP名师
    3年+教学经验
    新加坡国立大学硕士
    预约名师
    范志文 SSAT、SAT、SAT2名师
    4年+教学经验
    东华大学工科硕士
    预约名师
加入雅思学习圈
雅思学习圈
问呗APP: iOS版下载 问呗APP-iOS版下载 Android版下载 问呗APP-Android版下载
考呗APP: iOS版下载考呗APP-iOS版下载 Android版下载考呗APP-Android版下载
进雅思答疑群,请加助教老师微信: anne020508